Austin, Texas, USA
Logic and Eschatology
Cultures tend to have an idea of "the most they can hope for", that is, their utopias. Some utopias, for example secular and religious, are analogous. We shall take a look at their resemblances and differences from the logical point of view - epistemic logic (the logic of knowing and believing) and elpidic logic (the logic of hoping).
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
Analogy as Deliberate Introduction of Nuance
The title of my talk comes from a paraphrase of Albert Maysles definition of tyranny as the deliberate removal of nuance. I present analogy as a foundation of dialogue as it introduces nuance and protects us from dangerous dichotomies, false alternatives and polarized thinking.
Nuance is also presented as a necessary element of exit strategies, which should be always clearly provided in the context of dialogical encounter. Moreover, analogy through nuanced thinking allows us to follow an anti-essentialist approach.
There are three possible models of relations between people (conflict, isolation and dialogue) and corresponding concepts: univocity, equivocity and analogy. I argue that nuance and therefore analogy is crucial for the beneficial encounter as we need it as a new foundation of the dialogical concept of questions and answers. Interpellations and responses lead to a responsible attitude.
Nuance gives us comfort in expressing everyone’s unique situation and a particular sense of editing within dialogue. Openness for analogies, searching for profound and sound similarities and distinctions provides humility which is indispensable for real diversity and, consequently, for dialogical revolution in culture.
E. Dussel “Analogy and Communication”, Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 31.
K. Gan-Krzywoszyńska & P. Leśniewski, “On Reyes Mate’s Theory of the Victim: Meta-ethical Sketches on Injustice”, Ethics in Progress, Vol. 4 (2013), No. 2, pp. 63-77.
K. Gan-Krzywoszyńska, P. Leśniewski “Analogy-Making as an Art. Prolegomena to the Culture of Smile.” Timeliness of Analogy Poznań: Kontekst Publishing House 2022.
K. Gan-Krzywoszynska, P. Leśniewski (2023). On Dichotomy and Analogy: A Question on the Next “Unbloody” Revolution in Logic. Logic in Question (pp. 459-470).
K. Gan-Krzywoszyńska, Freedom and Abundance: Dialogical Philosophy of Style, Poznań: Publishing House of The Poznań Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, 2021.
Juan Manuel Campos Benítez
(Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Mexico)
Could Analogy be Hidden in a Theory of Metaphor?
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (Metaphors we live by, 1980) think metaphor is the understanding of one kind of thing in terms of another kind of thing. Each ‘thing’ is a complex one. It reminds the old saying, knowing the unknown by means of the already known, the unfamiliar thing by means of the acquainted one. Each thing is a domain which includes a semantic family of terms. The known thing is the source domain which is to be applied to a target domain. This is a process not only of language but mainly of thought, a conceptual one and pervades action and behavior. To put it briefly, a metaphor is to understand A (the target domain) in terms of B (the source domain). There is no (and could not be) a complete overlapping of domains, since a complete overlapping would destroy metaphor, making the domains a case of synonymy. The source domain contains some elements to be applied over the target domain, and some elements which cannot be applied. We may have a conceptual metaphor, say, for instance, "Life is a journey". This metaphor allows us to say many things in terms of a journey, and in terms of different types of traveling. In this case, metaphors reinforce each other to give us a better understanding of life.
There are poetic metaphors that behave in a similar though a little bit more complex form, because of the poets' mastery of language. Mark Turner and George Lakoff (More than Cool Reason, 1989) maintain that poetic metaphors are of the same kind as ordinary language metaphors, which are embedded in our very ways of thinking and acting. And that´s why we already recognize when hearing them. What’s more, children understand metaphors included in fairy tales and ‘produce’ their own metaphors; just look at their games to pick up metaphorical elements there. The conceptual metaphor embraces many everyday expressions, such as “giving one’s life some direction”, “getting somewhere with one’s life” and so on. In this talk I will try to find a link, if any, of this view of metaphor with some kind of analogy. My point is that analogy could be hidden in some way or another in this theory of metaphor.